Posts Tagged ‘carbon dioxide’

CSA major source of CO2 emissions in Rio de Janeiro

SBB 14 November Companhia Siderúrgica do Atlântico (CSA) – the new Brazilian slab plant owned by ThyssenKrupp and Vale – is being blamed for a large rise in carbon emissions in Rio de Janeiro, Steel Business Briefing learns from local environmental authorities.

From June 2010 to June 2011, city chiefs estimate 5.7m tonnes of CO2 were released into the atmosphere by CSA’s activities, half the city’s total 11.35m t of CO2 emissions in 2005.

Rio de Janeiro aims to reduce CO2 emissions 8% (from 2005’s CO2 total) by 2012 and the policy on climate change and sustainable development requires emissions to be cut 16% in 2016 and 20% by 2020.

Authorities have yet to decide whether to penalize CSA or if the company can receive its definitive operating license. To date, the mill has functioned with a pre-operation license that expires in September 2012, SBB notes.


Earliest industrialisation of Hisarna 2020: Tata Steel

SBB 14 November The earliest industrialisation of Hisarna, the smelting reduction technology being trialled at the IJmuiden steelworks, is 2020, Koen Meijer of Tata Steel told the recent German steel industry conference in Dusseldorf. Hisarna is a high risk/reward innovation, he said at the event attended by Steel Business Briefing.

On 18 April 2011 the process, which removes the need for coking and agglomeration, was piloted for the first time. After one failed start three successful attempts followed, and 60% of capacity was achieved for a short time, Meijer said.

The results of the pilot indicate that the process works as expected, though more operating hours are needed. Between December and February improvement proposals will be implemented and April-May next year will be the next campaign. Industrial scale demonstration will be carried out between 2014-2018, according to Meijer.

Hisarna is part of the Ultra-low CO2 Steelmaking (ULCOS) project, which aims to cut CO2 emissions by 50% per tonne of steel produced. Without carbon capture and storage technology Hisarna can cut emissions by 20%, whereas with CCS it can achieve a reduction of up to 80%.

It not only has environmental benefits, Meijer said. Costs associated with coking and agglomeration disappear through Hisarna and you can use iron ores not currently suitable for blast furnaces and non-coking coal.

Steel production accounts for 5% of manmade CO2 emissions globally, and consumption is expected to double by 2050. Further reductions in CO2 need breakthrough technologies, not just energy saving, Meijer said.

Tata could link into UK carbon capture and storage network

The steel industry will need to find a wide range of option to reduce emissions in the coming years if it is to avoid punitive costs. However, it does not always have to do so alone. Sometimes collaborating with existing projects may be a viable alternative to implementing an entirelyseparate scheme from scratch. One potential area for collaboration, if it is proved succesful, is in carbon capture and storage.

SBB 15 July Tata Steel Scunthorpe is in discussions to connect to a carbon capture and storage project in northern England, it confirms to Steel Business Briefing. Pending funding, this could significantly reduce the plant’s carbon dioxide emissions and the resulting costs.

The UK’s National Grid has begun consultations on a £5bn pipeline project to transport CO2 from the Don Valley power plant project to a storage site in the North Sea. The pipeline is planned for completion in 2015.

It is now also talking to other power plants and industrial sites in the Yorkshire & Humber region, including Tata Steel Scunthorpe, which together account for some 60m t/y of CO2 emissions.

The goal would be to develop a pipeline network in order that other facilities could feed their emissions into the main pipeline, the National Grid tells SBB. However, each facility would have to first receive funding, most likely from the European NER300 funding programme (New Entrants’ Reserve of 300m credits), it adds.

Tata Steel is looking at how carbon capture and storage and how this could benefit plants such as Scunthorpe, it tells SBB. It could now apply for the second round of NER300 funding, although no decisions have yet been taken, it points out. Applications may open next year once first round applications are decided, Jan Lucas, managing director of PNO Consultants Germany, tells SBB.

However, the exact amount of funding available is uncertain as the fund consists of the 300m carbon credits rather than a cash amount, warns Lucas. These have to be sold before the exact cash value of the fund is known.

Mittal: Level playing field needed for carbon regs

Although climate changeis a global issue, the failure to negotiate an international treaty to succeed the Kyoto Protocol has forced countries and regions to implement their own climate strategies individually.Steelmakers with European facilities complain that they are bearing the brunt of climate regulation, and that this puts them at a disadvantage. Recent developments in Australia are unlikely to assuage their concerns. It is only when the major steelmaking countries, especially China, begin to set a firm price for carbon emissions that the playing field will become more level.

SBB 22 June The global steel industry must do its part to reduce carbon emissions, but there “should be a level playing field,” believes Lakshmi Mittal, ceo of ArcelorMittal.

“The pressure on companies to reduce their CO2 emissions only looks set to intensify,” he predicted.

But Mittal said it doesn’t make sense for Europe to set carbon emissions standards when other parts of the world have not. This will only make production in Europe more expensive and increase it in other countries, he stated.

Additionally, Mittal said, the industry must help regulators understand that while each tonne of steel produced makes about two tonnes of CO2 – that drops over the steel’s lifetime to 0.7 t (per tonne of steel produced) because of steel’s recyclability.

“The steel industry needs to play it smart in heping to reduce CO2 emissions … but equally we need a balanced approach. Climate change is a global issue,” he told listeners.

He added, “We need to work harder to make sure the benefits of steel are understood and factored into wholistic regulatory frameworks.”

He was speaking at the Steel Success Strategies Conference in New York in June sponsored by World Steel Dynamics and American Metal Market; Steel Business Briefing was in attendance.

ArcelorMittal cuts CO2 intensity

Because carbon dioxide emissions are embedded steel production, emissions from the industry are likely to increase as steel demand and output grow. However, there is some room to improve the intensity of emissions through investments in technology.

SBB 11 May Carbon dioxide emissions from ArcelorMittal’s global operations were up by 35m tonnes to 199m t in 2010, Steel Business Briefing learns from the company’s annual corporate responsibility report. However, the intensity of CO2 emissions fell to 2.15 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of steel produced.

The increase in total emissions was largely because of a number of facilities restarting production last year. Total emissions are still under the 2008 figure of 224m t.

A number of investments across the company’s operations helped reduce the intensity of emissions below 2008’s level of 2.184 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of steel. The company spent $347m on environmental technology in 2010, the report says, up from $224m in 2009.

Investments included a new waste gas recovery plant at ArcelorMittal Ghent in Belgium which started in 2010 is intended to save 129,000 t of CO2 emissions annually. A similar plant is being built at ArcelorMittal Bremen in Germany, as previously reported.

Tata Steel and Rio sign agreement over Hisarna smelting

Breathrough low CO2 stelmaking technologies will be essential if the industry is to significantly lower its emissions. But these technologies could also be commercial ventures. Some, such as HIsarna, could also reduce initial investments, land use and raw materials costs. Tata Steel and Rio Tinto hope that they can market the technology if trials are successful.

SBB 25 April Tata Steel and Rio Tinto have signed a licensing agreement over Hisarna, the direct iron smelting process being trialled at IJmuiden in the Netherlands. This will decide how the companies will benefit from selling the technology, Steel Business Briefing understands.

In addition to reducing carbon dioxide emissions, the technology could potentially reduce costs. Hisarna, developed as part of the European Ultra-Low CO2 Steelmaking (ULCOS) programme, can produce hot metal from iron ore fines using thermal coal or charcoal. It therefore eliminates the need for coking and sintering and has lower raw material costs.

Under the agreement both parties will collaborate and share their knowledge over the two technologies combined in the process: cyclone pre-reduction and bath smelting. Rio Tinto recently abandoned its 800,000 t/y HIsmelt plant in Australia, which never reached full capacity because of technical difficulties, SBB notes.

The current HIsarna pilot smelter can produce 60,000 tonnes/year, though ULCOS intends to scale this up in the longer-term, SBB notes.

In future Hisarna could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 50% when combined with carbon capture and storage, according to a press release issued by Tata Steel.

‘Green’ steel technologies costly, time-consuming: execs

Any significant reduction in emissions from te steel industry will requirethe widespread use of greener technologies. However, breakthrough technologies are still years from commercial development and very expensive.

SBB 11 April Technologies aimed at reducing steel’s carbon emissions require significant time and capital to develop, mill executives and experts on the topic contend.

Speaking during Steel Business Briefing’s Green Steel Strategies conference in Brussels on 5-6 April, Jean-Pierre Birat, head of the Ultra-low CO2 Steelmaking (ULCOS) program with ArcelorMittal’s global research and development unit, said the industry has worked to reduce emissions for more than 20 years – well before the EU, US and others undertook similar initiatives.

The EU is requiring steelmakers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 21% from 2005 to 2020. “We are fighting, running against time because we are told we must have a solution by 2020, which is a tremendous constraint,” Birat said.

Mills have been working on ULCOS technologies, such as the HIsarna project at Tata Steel Europe’s IJmuiden plant in the Netherlands. The €60m (US$86.6m) pilot project features an internal “melting cyclone” that involves direct insertion of coal, ore and oxygen to help reduce CO2 emissions by 20%. If carbon sequestration also is employed, CO2 can be reduced by 80%.

However, even with a commissioning this month, the HIsarna plant’s industrial scale demonstration phase would run from 2014-2018. “We cannot expect any of this technology to be capturing CO2 in a way that makes sense before 2020,” Birat said.

And, as CO2 efforts drive up costs in developed regions, end users could simply buy elsewhere. “They’re going to get it from markets where they can make it cheaper,” Nucor’s GM of environmental affairs Steve Rowlan said.